1) Yes; those are stored within the software. You will be able to recall them with MIDI controllers.
2) No, there is no "waveform" from a timecode CD - if you've ever listened to it, it sounds like a constant high-pitched tone.
3) Any latency in your system would be inherent from the audio interface (NI Audio 10), the software and your computer's hardware ability to process the audio and signal.
4) No, the audio output will not be recorded if you are sending discrete channels out of the Audio10. What you COULD do is configure the Audio10 to have a pair of its channels as inputs from the REC OUT from the DJM-800, thus allowing you to record what is effectively the master output from the mixer, including all effects, into Traktor.